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Recursive delete from IsolatedStorage and other time savers for Windows Phone development

As you, probably, notice, I returned to the consulting field. So I started to publish here again. Today, we’ll speak about some quick extension methods which help me to work with Windows Phone. We’ll start from IsolatedStorageFile (frankly, I do not know why they called it “File”).

First of all, let’s make a method to delete the directory recursively, including files inside.

public static void DeleteDirectory(this IsolatedStorageFile store, string dir, bool recursive) {
            if (store.DirectoryExists(dir)) {
                if (recursive) {
                    foreach (var directory in store.GetDirectoryNames(Path.Combine(dir, "*"))) {
                        store.DeleteDirectory(directory, true);
                    foreach (var file in store.GetFileNames(Path.Combine(dir, "*"))) {
                        store.DeleteFile(Path.Combine(dir, file));

Usage rather straight-forward (like regular IsolatedStorageFile.DeleteDirectory method but with additional parameter.

var store = IsolatedStorageFile.GetUserStoreForApplication();
store.DeleteDirectory(“MyDirectory”, true);

With recursive==true it will delete all inside the directory and the directory itself, without, will work exactly like the original method.

As known. Windows Phone API works only with XDocuments and Xml.Linq, which is good thing, but sometimes, it is nasty getting a value of the attribute you not sure us there. Thus I wrote a method to make the syntax cleaner.

public static string GetAttribute(this XElement element, string name) {
            if (element.HasAttribute(name)) return element.Attribute(name).Value;
            else return string.Empty;

public static bool HasAttribute(this XElement element, string name) {
            return element.HasAttributes && element.Attribute(name) != null;

Usage is simple:

var items = itm.Descendants("item").Where(e => e.GetAttribute("type") != "default");
                foreach (var item in items) {
                    var pid = item.GetAttribute("id");


Another problem is the complicated syntax of visual tree manipulations. Thus I wrote some handy methods to handle it.

Check whether the tree contains an object

public static bool IsInVisualTree(this DependencyObject element, DependencyObject treeRoot) {
            return element.GetVisualAncestors().Contains(treeRoot);

Getting all visual ancestors our of the visual tree on the phone.

public static IEnumerable<DependencyObject> GetVisualAncestors(this DependencyObject element) {
            DependencyObject candidate = null;
            while (element != null) {
                candidate = VisualTreeHelper.GetParent(element);
                if (candidate == null) {
                    var asFe = element as FrameworkElement;
                    if (asFe != null)
                        candidate = asFe.Parent;
                element = candidate;
                if (element != null)
                    yield return element;


…and descendants for the element inside the tree.

public static IEnumerable<DependencyObject> GetVisualDescendants(this DependencyObject element) {
            int childCount = VisualTreeHelper.GetChildrenCount(element);
            for (int i = 0; i < childCount; i++) {
                var child = VisualTreeHelper.GetChild(element, i);
                yield return child;
                foreach (var descendant in child.GetVisualDescendants()) {
                    yield return descendant;


Here are some usage examples

if (originalSource.GetVisualAncestors().OfType<ItemBase>().Any()) { … }

itemsHost = this.GetVisualDescendants().OfType<Panel>().Where(p => p is PanelBase).FirstOrDefault()

Since, today I have a number of projects on Windows Phone, I’ll, probably, add some handy methods on going. As for you, you can put those together inside my golden sugar collection and work easier.

Be good people and have a nice day.

What the f***k code

Recently I had to go over some code in one of systems. There I’ve found real gems of production code snippets, worth to share with developers community. Note, that most of this code is not “dead code” and perfectly working.

READER ADVISORY: Following post contains objectionable code snippets and might not suitable for all individuals.

My code is compiling!

Disclaimer: I changed some snippets to prevent possible authors’ punishment.

Let’s start from small unit tests. This one is really ultimate test!

// if this works for this this works for sure!
topic = typeof(TestRequest).FullName + "." + "";

Also this one is brutal.

// Prevent the code from exiting before double the timeout time
bool ok = wait.WaitOne(_bus.DefaultResponseTimeout * 2 * 1000);
Assert.IsTrue(ok == true);
Assert.IsNull(error ?? null);

Sometimes, people need definitive and proven way to eliminate annoying file URI scheme.

string emptyString = string.Empty;
do {
    if (File.Exists(asmPath)) break;
while (asmPath.Replace("file", emptyString).Replace(":", emptyString).Replace("\\", emptyString).Replace("/", emptyString).Replace("//", emptyString) != emptyString);
// now assembly name is clean and we can load it

There are also cases of mistrustful GUID

message.AddField(FIELD_OWNER_ID, _ownerId);
while (string.Compare(_ownerId, Guid.NewGuid().ToString()) == 0) _ownerId = Guid.NewGuid().ToString();
message.AddField(FIELD_OWNER_ID, _ownerId);

In certain cases, they need threads to sleep for 1 second anyway.

try {
} catch {
   try {
   } catch {
      try {
      } catch {
         try {
         } catch {
            // Gracefully exit the thread
         }// catch
   // Gracefully exit the thread
} // catch

Graceful shutdown and correct memory management is the key of successful programming.

~Bus() {
try {
  try { this.dispatcher.Destroy(); } catch (Exception) { }
  try { this.queue.Destroy(); } catch (Exception) { }
  try { this.transport.Destroy(); } catch (Exception) { }
  try { this.transport1.Destroy(); } catch (Exception) { }
  try { Environment.Close(); } catch (Exception) { }
} catch (Exception) {
      // Avoid crashing the process..
   } // catch

public void Dispose() {

protected virtual void Dispose(bool disposing) {
try {
   try { this.dispatcher.Destroy(); } catch (Exception) { }
   try { this.queue.Destroy(); } catch (Exception) { }
   try { this.transport.Destroy(); } catch (Exception) { }
   try { this.transport1.Destroy(); } catch (Exception) { }
   try { Environment.Close(); } catch (Exception) { }
} catch (Exception) {
      // Need to assure the process ends
   } // catch

I am not violent psychopath and not going to ask somebody to maintain this code, but this is for sure built by a lot of brut force and thousands of slaves, like Egyptian pyramids.

Happy Passover to everyone.

gefilte fish hack

⟨ , ,  ⟩

OpenSSL bug or why some private keys cannot be used for .NET

More than half year ago, I wrote an article about importing RSA private key in PEM format into C# RSACryptoProvider. This code was used by me for a long time until two days ago I got private key which I was unable to import due to “Bad Data” CryptographicException. And here the story begins…

Bug crime

First thing to do in such cases is to check who’s bug is it. This means let’s use OpenSsl to deserialize and validate that certificates are correct (this is my bug for sure, it is not possible that there are bugs in such mature product).

> openssl x509 -noout -modulus -in cert.pem | openssl md5
(stdin)= d1eda6b5f39cd………43d50ee2c4e08

> openssl rsa -noout -modulus -in key.pem | openssl md5
Enter pass phrase for key.pem:
(stdin)= d1eda6b5f39cd………43d50ee2c4e08

Looks perfectly right. So it’s clearly my problem… and I entered into heavy debugging PEM parser. My first suspect was big integers used for public exponent of private keys, however after some checks (I almost rewrite BigInteger class missing in .NET 3.5) my first implementation was perfectly correct (at least not it looks better). Second victim became high bit of integers used for both primes. But after short check it also looks ok.

Then my accusing finger was pointed to ASN.1 DER parser. More precisely, into my implementation of length octets. As you remember, we are checking “hardcoded” for high bit in first octet and then just read low bits of following octet into swapped array. Then removing all trailing zeros and subtract it from the actual length.This is what is used to be:

private static Func<BinaryReader, int> _getIntSize = r => {
   byte lb = 0×00;
   byte hb = 0×00;
   int c = 0;
   var b = r.ReadByte();
   if (b != 0×02) { //int
      return 0;
   b = r.ReadByte();

   if (b == 0×81) {
      c = r.ReadByte(); //size
   } else
      if (b == 0×82) {
         hb = r.ReadByte(); //size
         lb = r.ReadByte();
         byte[] m = { lb, hb, 0×00, 0×00 };
         c = BitConverter.ToInt32(m, 0);
      } else {
         c = b; //got size

   while (r.ReadByte() == 0×00) { //remove high zero
      c -= 1;
   r.BaseStream.Seek(-1, SeekOrigin.Current); // last byte is not zero, go back;
   return c;

Code looks not very clean and too specific for such action. You, probably, familiar with this feeling of “oh my god, what I though about when I wrote it a year ago?”. So I decided to rewrite it.

According ISO 8825-1:2003  In the long form, the length octets shall consist of an initial octet and one or more subsequent octets. The initial octet shall be encoded as follows:
a) bit 8 shall be one;
b) bits 7 to 1 shall encode the number of subsequent octets in the length octets, as an unsigned binary integer
with bit 7 as the most significant bit;
c) the value 111111112 shall not be used.

Let’s do it

if ((b & 0x80) == 0x80) { //check whether long form
  var l = b & ~0x80;
  var d = r.ReadBytes(l);
  var dl = new byte[4];
  d.CopyTo(dl, 0);
  c = BitConverter.ToInt32(dl, 0);

Now it looks much nicer and correct. For short form nothing changed as well as for trailing zeros. Also the problem remains.

But wait, trailing zeros. Maybe the problem there? The only reason to have zero octets is indefinite length. In this case we should find single octet (one with last bit set only) at the beginning and two zero octets at the end. So in any case of having definite length of type one or two we can safely remove trailing zeros and subtract length or not remove it, the result will be the same since we are using the same endian. So what is the problem? Let’s open hex editor and compare “good” and “bad” keys.


Nothing special can be found in those two keys. Both looks ok, but, wait… How is it possible that exponent2 is smaller than exponent1 and coefficient?


Maybe it is because of trailing spaces? Let’s trim it.


As you can clearly see, in bad sample length of exponent2 is not equal to primes and other exponents. This is the reason why we were not able to read and use it. But how it works in OpenSSL? Let’s look into ASN1_INTEGER object. According DER spec, when we are encoding in long form, bit 8 will be set to 1, this means that inside ASN1_INTEGER if it starts from byte larger then 0x80 additional zero pad should be added. However when encoding negative integers, trailing zero will become 0xFF+additional zero at the end due to carry. In this case, OpenSSL serializer should add as many trailing zeros as it required by source number (prime or modulus in this case). This is what OpenSSL not doing.

In other case if the first byte is greater than 0x80 we should pad 0xFF, however if first byte is 0x80 and one of the following bytes is non-zero we should pad 0xFF to distinct 0x80 (which is indefinite length, remember?). Also if it followed by additional zeros it should not be padded.

The bad news, that all this is voided in all version of OpenSSL with win comments like “we have now cleared all the crap”, “a miss or crap from the other end” or “We’ve already written n zeros so we just append an extra one and set the first byte to a 1.”.

The good news, that nobody cares because this part is complicated and usually encoded and decoded by the same library. The only problem is when there are two implementations are in use: OpenSSL one and other which is strictly enforces the ISO 8825 . Just like in our case.

To workaround the problem we can add custom logic to add trailing zeros at the beginning of each integer when we know the target size, based of source.

var MODULUS = _readInt(reader); // assuming that modulus is correct
var E = _readInt(reader);
var D = _normalize(_readInt(reader), MODULUS.Length); // private exponent
var P = _normalize(_readInt(reader), MODULUS.Length / 2); // prime 1
var Q = _normalize(_readInt(reader), MODULUS.Length / 2); ; // prime 2
var DP = _normalize(_readInt(reader), P.Length);
var DQ = _normalize(_readInt(reader), Q.Length);
var IQ = _normalize(_readInt(reader), Q.Length);

private static byte[] _normalize(byte[] trg, int len) {
   byte[] r;
   if (len > trg.Length) {
      r = new byte[len];
      trg.CopyTo(r, len – trg.Length);
   } else {
      r = trg;
   return r;

Or, better idea is to fix it in OpenSSL, but, probably, this will break thousands of applications, so it is almost sure that such fix will rest in peace inside dev branch for a long long time.

Be good people and do not follow specifications to win extra days of your life.

RSA private key import from PEM format in C#

First of all, I want to apologies for not writing. From one hand, this is not a good think for me to disappeared from development community horizons, from other hand, I am investing all my time into our better feature, which is good thing. There are too much things were done during last two years. And the good news are that we already delivered whatever was promised to deliver and know for sure that we are able to deliver even more in the future. But let’s come into business. First of all I have huge pipeline of interesting articles to share with you, second, some people from my team are also decided to contribute to the community and write Better Place development team blog. There are not too much there, but this is only a matter of time.

Today we’ll speak about security. About how to import OpenSSL private key into .NET application and use it aside with X509 public certificate to establish TLS connection with asymmetric encryption and two phase certificates handshake.


Let’s start from the very beginning. What is SSL? SSL is the secure way to communicate when transferred data is encrypted by using one time and per-session cipher. There are different implementations of such connection. The most famous one is the one all of you using when connection to https://someting… When doing this, your browser asks remote side to provide it public certificate for you in order to check it with local “authority” you trusted in. If everything is ok and the host defined on the remote certificate is the host you are speaking with, your browser allows communication after both sides decide about the one-time cipher for encryption.

You can implement this mode of SSL very easy by using SslStream class in .NET as 1-2-3.
1) Resolve host and open TcpClient connection to it

var host = new IPHostEntry();
try {
host = Dns.GetHostEntry(RemoteAddress.DnsSafeHost);
} catch (SocketException soe) {
if (soe.SocketErrorCode == SocketError.HostNotFound) {
  host.HostName = RemoteAddress.DnsSafeHost;

Client.Connect(host.HostName, RemoteAddress.Port);

2) Initialize SSL encrypted stream to it by providing validation callback for remote certificate

var stream = new SslStream(Client.GetStream(), true, _validateCertificate);

3) Ask for authorization


Inside remote certificate validation callback, you should decide what to do if something bad happened during negotiation phase.

private readonly RemoteCertificateValidationCallback _validateCertificate = (sender, certificate, chain, sslPolicyErrors) => {
  var result = sslPolicyErrors == SslPolicyErrors.None;
    if (!result) {
      var err = new StringBuilder();
        err.AppendFormat("Unable to establish security connection due to {0}. Error chain:", sslPolicyErrors);

        foreach (var el in chain.ChainElements) {
          foreach (var s in el.ChainElementStatus) {
            err.AppendFormat("{0} – {1}", el.Certificate.Subject, s.StatusInformation);
      return result;

So far, so good. Now, if everything is OK, just use SslStream as regular stream to write and read from the socket. All other complicated things will be done by .NET.

However this is only a part of the game. Now the real thing comes. What if you want to be more secure and want your server to be able to validate that local client is one it can trust. This scenario often used in closed networks, when server side (or any other provisioning entity) can assure that every client is well known and it able to provide certificate to each of those. For this scenario we also have solution in SslStream implementation, which takes into account this ability, defined by TLS RFC. All we need is to use other override of SslStream constructor which receives the callback for client certificate choose logic and authorization method with prepared clients certificates.

var stream = new SslStream(Client.GetStream(), true, _validateCertificate, _selectCertificate);
stream.AuthenticateAsClient(host.HostName, _clientCerts, SslProtocols.Ssl3, false);

Inside local certificate selection logic you should receive the remote end choice algorithm and return the most secure client certificate you have

private readonly LocalCertificateSelectionCallback _selectCertificate = (sender, target, localCerts, remoteCert, issuers) => {
return securestCert;

Also you should prepare the local certificates collection, provided as input to negotiation method. This one is simple too. All you need is standard X509 certificate(s). Usually, such certificates provided by uber-secure-unix-seriose-unbreakable-machine, which uses OpenSSL to export generated keys. This means, that in most cases, your public certificate will looks inside like this:

        Version: 1 (0x0)
        Serial Number: 268436473 (0x100003f9)
        Signature Algorithm: md5WithRSAEncryption
        Issuer: O=UBER, OU=RD/, L=TLV, ST=Israel, C=IL, CN=ca
            Not Before: May 25 11:26:50 2011 GMT
            Not After : May 24 11:26:50 2012 GMT
        Subject: C=IL, ST=Israel, O=UBER, OU=SEC, CN=UberSecurity
        Subject Public Key Info:
            Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption
            RSA Public Key: (1024 bit)
                Modulus (1024 bit):
                    … some random HEX numbers …
                Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
    Signature Algorithm: md5WithRSAEncryption
        … some other random HEX numbers …
… some BASE64 random characters here …

This format called PEM (Privacy Enhanced Mail). This is most common and easiest format for secure text transfer. Such file can be easily imported and used by X509Certificate class as following:

var clientCert = X509Certificate.CreateFromCertFile("myCert.pem");

That’s all, all you need now is to add this certificate into certificate collection (_clientCerts in this case) and return it when _selectCertificate delegate being called.

Looks simple and secure? It is, but there is a small BUT in all this. Real security experts, come from OpenSSL world often do not want to put private key for client (the key will be used for outgoing traffic encryption) inside client certificate and want to provide it via other channel securely.

Now you are asking what I am speaking about? Let me explain:

When SSL uses asymmetric encryption algorithm, local side uses private key to encrypt outgoing traffic. Once it trust other side (by validating remote certificate), it send local public key to the remote side, which uses it for information decryption. So far we have three entities: public key, private key and certificate. There is a method commonly used by industry to minimize transit problems. We know to pack public certificate and wrapped public key inside the same store to send it. If we want to go even further, we can also store securely private key inside the same store. Looks not very secure? This is not quite right. First of all, in most cases private certificate is encrypted by using special keyphase only known to the side this certificate intended to, second, it uses the same public key+certificate itself hash values to encrypt it event better. In this case there is a big advantage of compact and well known package format (keypair+certificate) and high security level.

However people come from OpenSSL world not trust too much to this method (and called it “evil empire bought the patent”) and often provide encrypted private key separately. This key being transferred in PEM format, however this time it is not standard one, but specific and designed by OpenSSL geeks. Even if they call it RSA format, it has almost not relation to it.

Such key looks as following:

Proc-Type: 4,ENCRYPTED
DEK-Info: DES-EDE3-CBC,…some geeky HEX here …

… some BASE64 random characters here …


Looks simple? Do not hurry this much. .NET has not build in method to read this format. So we’ll have to write one, based on OpenSSL specification. Let’s start

First of all “well known headers”

private const string _begin = "—–BEGIN ";
private const string _end = "—–END ";
private const string _private = "PRIVATE KEY";
private const string _public = "PUBLIC KEY";
private const string _rsaPublic = "RSA PUBLIC KEY";

Next read the text inside the file:

using (var reader = new StringReader(data)) {
   var line = reader.ReadLine();
   if (line.NotNull() && line.StartsWith(_begin)) {
      line = line.Substring(_begin.Length);
      var idx = line.IndexOf(‘-‘);
      if (idx > 0) {
         var type = line.Before(idx);
         return _loadPem(reader, type, passKey);
   throw new ArgumentException("This is not valid PEM format", "data", new FormatException("PEM start identifier is invalid or not found."));

…and read headers:

var end = _end + type;
var headers = new _pemHeaders();
var line = string.Empty;
var body = new StringBuilder();
while ((line = reader.ReadLine()) != null && line.IndexOf(end) == -1) {
   if (line == null) {
      throw new FormatException("PEM end identifier is invalid or not found.");
   var d = line.IndexOf(‘:’);
   if (d >= 0) {
      // header
      var n = line.Substring(0, d).Trim();
      if (n.StartsWith("X-")) n = n.Substring(2);
      var v = line.After(d).Trim();
      if (!headers.ContainsKey(n)) {
         headers.Add(n, v);
      } else {
         throw new FormatException("Duplicate header {0} in PEM data.".Substitute(n));

When headers are ready, we need to read a body. This is base64 encrypted

   } else {
      // body
if (body.Length % 4 != 0 || type.EndsWith(_private)) {
   throw new FormatException("PEM data is invalid or truncated.");

return _createPem(type, headers, Convert.FromBase64String(body.ToString()), passkey);

and now, based on headers, we can decode body. For simplification, we’ll decode only most common encryptions for the key

type = type.Before(type.Length – _private.Length).Trim();
var pType = headers.TryGet("Proc-Type");
if (pType == "4,ENCRYPTED") {
   if (passkey.IsEmpty()) {
      throw new ArgumentException("Passkey is mandatory for encrypted PEM object");

   var dek = headers.TryGet("DEK-Info");
   var tkz = dek.Split(‘,’);
   if (tkz.Length > 1) {
      var alg = new _alg(tkz[0]);
      var saltLen = tkz[1].Length;
      var salt = new byte[saltLen / 2];
      for (var i = 0; i < saltLen / 2; i++) {
         var pair = tkz[1].Substring(2 * i, 2);
         salt[i] = Byte.Parse(pair, NumberStyles.AllowHexSpecifier);

      body = _decodePem(body, passkey, alg, salt);
      if (body != null) {
         return _decodeRsaPrivateKey(body);
   } else {
      throw new FormatException("DEK information is invalid or truncated.");

For simplification, we’ll support only most common encryption algorithms (3DES with CBC mode). In general RSA private key can be encrypted by AES, Blow Fish, DES/Triple DES and RC2

private static byte[] _decodePem(byte[] body, string passkey, _alg alg, byte[] salt) {
   if (alg.AlgBase != _alg.BaseAlg.DES_EDE3 && alg.AlgMode != _alg.Mode.CBC) {
      throw new NotSupportedException("Only 3DES-CBC keys are supported.");
   var des = _get3DesKey(salt, passkey);
   if (des == null) {
      throw new ApplicationException("Unable to calculate 3DES key for decryption.");
   var rsa = _decryptRsaKey(body, des, salt);
   if (rsa == null) {
      throw new ApplicationException("Unable to decrypt RSA private key.");
   return rsa;

And decrypt itself

private static byte[] _decryptRsaKey(byte[] body, byte[] desKey, byte[] iv) {
   byte[] result = null;
   using (var stream = new MemoryStream()) {
      var alg = TripleDES.Create();
      alg.Key = desKey;
      alg.IV = iv;
      try {
         using (var cs = new CryptoStream(stream, alg.CreateDecryptor(), CryptoStreamMode.Write)) {
            cs.Write(body, 0, body.Length);
         result = stream.ToArray();
      } catch (CryptographicException ce) {
         // throw up
         throw ce;
      } catch (Exception ex) {
         Log.Exception(ex, Severity.Info, "Failed to write crypto stream.");
   return result;

by getting 3DES key from stream

private static byte[] _get3DesKey(byte[] salt, string passkey) {
   var HASHLENGTH = 16;
   var m = 2; // 2 iterations for at least 24 bytes
   var c = 1; // 1 hash for Open SSL
   var k = new byte[HASHLENGTH * m];

   var pk = Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes(passkey);
   var data = new byte[salt.Length + pk.Length];
   Array.Copy(pk, data, pk.Length);
   Array.Copy(salt, 0, data, pk.Length, salt.Length);
   var md5 = new MD5CryptoServiceProvider();
   byte[] result = null;
   var hash = new byte[HASHLENGTH + data.Length];
   for (int i = 0; i < m; i++) {
      if (i == 0) {
         result = data;
      } else {
         Array.Copy(result, hash, result.Length);
         Array.Copy(data, 0, hash, result.Length, data.Length);
         result = hash;

      for (int j = 0; j < c; j++) {
         result = md5.ComputeHash(result);
      Array.Copy(result, 0, k, i * HASHLENGTH, result.Length);
   var dk = new byte[24]; //final key
   Array.Copy(k, dk, dk.Length);
   return dk;

When we decode the body, we can use create RSACryptoServiceProvider class from it to be used by our SslStream. Oh, yeah, some crazy math here

using (var ms = new MemoryStream(body)) {
   using (var reader = new BinaryReader(ms)) {
      try {
         var tb = reader.ReadUInt16(); // LE: x30 x81
         if (tb == 0x8130) {
            reader.ReadByte(); // fw 1
         } else if (tb == 0x8230) {
            reader.ReadInt16(); // fw 2
         } else {
            return null;

         tb = reader.ReadUInt16(); // version
         if (tb != 0x0102) {
            return null;
         if (reader.ReadByte() != 0x00) {
            return null;

         var MODULUS = _readInt(reader);
         var E = _readInt(reader);
         var D = _readInt(reader);
         var P = _readInt(reader);
         var Q = _readInt(reader);
         var DP = _readInt(reader);
         var DQ = _readInt(reader);
         var IQ = _readInt(reader);

         var result = new RSACryptoServiceProvider();
         var param = new RSAParameters {
            Modulus = MODULUS,
            Exponent = E,
            D = D,
            P = P,
            Q = Q,
            DP = DP,
            DQ = DQ,
            InverseQ = IQ
         return result;


      } catch (Exception ex) {
      } finally {

Some helper methods to read bytes and we done

private static Func<BinaryReader, byte[]> _readInt = r => {
   var s = _getIntSize(r);
   return r.ReadBytes(s);

private static Func<BinaryReader, int> _getIntSize = r => {
   byte lb = 0x00;
   byte hb = 0x00;
   int c = 0;
   var b = r.ReadByte();
   if (b != 0x02) { //int
      return 0;
   b = r.ReadByte();

   if (b == 0x81) {
      c = r.ReadByte(); //size
   } else
      if (b == 0x82) {
         hb = r.ReadByte(); //size
         lb = r.ReadByte();
         byte[] m = { lb, hb, 0x00, 0x00 };
         c = BitConverter.ToInt32(m, 0);
      } else {
         c = b; //got size

   while (r.ReadByte() == 0x00) { //remove high zero
      c -= 1;
   r.BaseStream.Seek(-1, SeekOrigin.Current); // last byte is not zero, go back;
   return c;

We done, all we have to do now is to construct our private key and pack it for SslStream use. For this purpose we have X509Certificate big brother X509Certificate2 

var cert = new X509Certificate2(File.ReadAllBytes(“myCert.pem”)) {
  PrivateKey = FromPem(Encoding.ASCII.GetString(File.ReadAllBytes(“myKey.pem”)), _sslPrivateKeyPasskey)

Now when you supply cert as the client certificate SslStream will use private key for outgoing stream encryption, provide public key for remote incoming stream encryption and certificate for remote side identification.

We done. Be good people and subscribe to our dev blog, it promised to be one of the most interesting blogs for those who is not satisfied with the way Windows works and want to pimp it a bit.

Source code for this article (4 KB) >>

P.S. If, in case, you got invitation from Microsoft Israel to participate “Be what’s next” event next Wednesday 22nd. It is highly recommended to come and see me (and other large ISVs) speak about solutions we did. If you did not get an invitation, and you are MS partner, please contact local DPE guys. This is for certain ISVs and only by invitations.


Quick IT tip: How to build bootable USB stick

Because of my main job and lack of human resources there, I invest less and less in community. Thus I lost my MVP title. Sorry, guys. Also a ton of management tasks in big company prevents me from actual coding. However I am still able to find some time for doing “real” things such as Windows Embedded Standard 2011 image building. Thus today I will explain how to build bootable flash USB disk with a couple of simple commands and without using special utilities.

 World first USB drive by Trek Technology

Why to use bootable USB instead of regular CD or DVD ROM? Well, it is more convenience, takes less storage, faster and fully recycle. So let’s start.

1. Insert USB flash drive :)
2. Run command prompt shell as Administrator (just in case the keyboard shortcut for “Run as Administrator” is Ctrl+Alt+Shift)
3. Type “diskpart” to run Microsoft DiskPart utility.


Microsoft DiskPart version 6.1.7600
Copyright (C) 1999-2008 Microsoft Corporation.
On computer: TAMIRK-DEV

4. List your disks by typing in “list disk” or for those who like it shorter (like me) “list dis

DISKPART> lis dis

  Disk ###  Status         Size     Free     Dyn  Gpt
  ——–  ————-  ——-  ——-  —  —
  Disk 0    Online          149 GB  1024 KB
  Disk 1    Online           75 GB     2 GB
  Disk 2    Online         3814 MB      0 B
  Disk 3    No Media           0 B      0 B
  Disk 4    No Media           0 B      0 B
  Disk 5    Online           14 GB      0 B

5. Identify your flash drive (in my case it is Disk 5)
6. Select this drive to mark it for work by using “select disk 5” or “sel dis 5” command

DISKPART> sel dis 5

Disk 5 is now the selected disk.

7. Clean it (this will delete everything on your disk drive, so be careful) by using “clean” or “cle” command.


DiskPart succeeded in cleaning the disk.

8. Create primary partition – “create partition primary” or “cre par pri

DISKPART> cre par pri

DiskPart succeeded in creating the specified partition.

9. Select new partition – “select partition 1” or “sel par 1

DISKPART> sel par 1

Partition 1 is now the selected partition.

10. Mark it as Active partition – “active” or “act


DiskPart marked the current partition as active.

11. Format – “format fs=ntfs quick” or “for fs=ntfs quick

DISKPART> for fs=ntfs quick

  100 percent completed

DiskPart successfully formatted the volume.

12. And finally my favorite command – “assign” or “ass” to mark it ready and create mount point


DiskPart successfully assigned the drive letter or mount point.

13. Exit – “exit” or “exi” to return to command shell


Leaving DiskPart…

Now your thumb drive is ready and bootable. So you can start copying files from ISO image into it.

Other option is to work with volumes rather than with disks. The all difference is in steps 4-6. Instead of “lis dis” use “lis vol” and instead of “sel dis” use “sel vol”. Maybe it is more convenience way of work because in this case you can identify partitions by labels and sizes rather than by sizes only.

DISKPART> lis vol

  Volume ###  Ltr  Label        Fs     Type        Size     Status     Info
  ———-  —  ———–  —–  ———-  ——-  ———  ——–
  Volume 0     E                       DVD-ROM         0 B  No Media
  Volume 1     G                       DVD-ROM         0 B  No Media
  Volume 2         System Rese  NTFS   Partition    100 MB  Healthy    System
  Volume 3     C                NTFS   Partition     68 GB  Healthy    Boot
  Volume 4     D   DATA         NTFS   Partition     80 GB  Healthy
  Volume 5     F   READYBOOST   FAT    Removable   3812 MB  Healthy
  Volume 6     H                       Removable       0 B  No Media
  Volume 7     I                       Removable       0 B  No Media
  Volume 8     K                NTFS   Removable     14 GB  Healthy

If you already copied your image into disk, you can mark MBR by using special utility called BootSect.exe shipped with WAIK. In our case (with Windows 7 embedded), you’ll have to update master boot code to use BOOTMGR (Vista and up) rather than NTLDR (XP and down)


We done, have a good day and be good people. Additional information regarding USB core guys from MS can be archived from their brand new blog (hope it will be up to date).

At the end, just you to know how are CDs make by Discovery Channel

INotifyPropertyChanged auto wiring or how to get rid of redundant code

For the last week most of WPF disciples are discussing how to get rid of hardcoded property name string inside INotifyPropertyChanged implementation and how to keep using automatic properties implementation but keep WPF binding working. The thread was started by Karl Shifflett, who proposed interesting method of using StackFrame for this task. During this thread other methods were proposed including code snippets, R#, Observer Pattern, Cinch framework, Static Reflection, Weak References and others. I also proposed the method we’re using for our classes and promised to blog about it. So the topic today is how to use PostSharp to wire automatic implementation of INotifyPropertyChanged interface based on automatic setters only.

My 5 ¢

So, I want my code to looks like this:

public class AutoWiredSource {
   public double MyProperty { get; set; }
   public double MyOtherProperty { get; set; }

while be fully noticeable about any change in any property and makes me able to bind to those properties.

<StackPanel DataContext="{Binding Source={StaticResource source}}">
    <Slider Value="{Binding Path=MyProperty}" />
    <Slider Value="{Binding Path=MyProperty}" />

How to achieve it? How to make compiler to replace my code with following?:

private double _MyProperty;
public double MyProperty {
   get { return _MyProperty; }
   set {
      if (value != _MyProperty) {
         _MyProperty = value; OnPropertyChanged("MyProperty");
public event PropertyChangedEventHandler PropertyChanged;
internal void OnPropertyChanged(string propertyName) {
   if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(propertyName)) throw new ArgumentNullException("propertyName");

   var handler = PropertyChanged as PropertyChangedEventHandler;
   if (handler != null) handler(this, new PropertyChangedEventArgs(propertyName));

Simple: to use aspect oriented programming to inject set of instructions into pre-compiled source.

First of all we have to build some attribute will be used for marking classes requires change tracking. This attribute should be combined (compound) aspect to include all aspects used for change tracking. All we’re doing here is to get all set methods to add composition aspect to

[Serializable, DebuggerNonUserCode, AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Assembly | AttributeTargets.Class, AllowMultiple = false, Inherited = false),
MulticastAttributeUsage(MulticastTargets.Class, AllowMultiple = false, Inheritance = MulticastInheritance.None, AllowExternalAssemblies = true)]
public sealed class NotifyPropertyChangedAttribute : CompoundAspect {
   public int AspectPriority { get; set; }

   public override void ProvideAspects(object element, LaosReflectionAspectCollection collection) {
      Type targetType = (Type)element;
      collection.AddAspect(targetType, new PropertyChangedAspect { AspectPriority = AspectPriority });
      foreach (var info in targetType.GetProperties(BindingFlags.Public | BindingFlags.Instance).Where(pi => pi.GetSetMethod() != null)) {
         collection.AddAspect(info.GetSetMethod(), new NotifyPropertyChangedAspect(info.Name) { AspectPriority = AspectPriority });

Next aspect is change tracking composition aspect. Which is used for marking only

internal sealed class PropertyChangedAspect : CompositionAspect {
   public override object CreateImplementationObject(InstanceBoundLaosEventArgs eventArgs) {
      return new PropertyChangedImpl(eventArgs.Instance);

   public override Type GetPublicInterface(Type containerType) {
      return typeof(INotifyPropertyChanged);

   public override CompositionAspectOptions GetOptions() {
      return CompositionAspectOptions.GenerateImplementationAccessor;

And the next which is most interesting one, we will put onto method boundary for tracking. There are some highlights here. First we do not want to fire PropertyChanged event if the actual value did not changed, thus we’ll handle the method on it entry and on it exit for check.

internal sealed class NotifyPropertyChangedAspect : OnMethodBoundaryAspect {
   private readonly string _propertyName;

   public NotifyPropertyChangedAspect(string propertyName) {
      if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(propertyName)) throw new ArgumentNullException("propertyName");
      _propertyName = propertyName;

   public override void OnEntry(MethodExecutionEventArgs eventArgs) {
      var targetType = eventArgs.Instance.GetType();
      var setSetMethod = targetType.GetProperty(_propertyName);
      if (setSetMethod == null) throw new AccessViolationException();
      var oldValue = setSetMethod.GetValue(eventArgs.Instance,null);
      var newValue = eventArgs.GetReadOnlyArgumentArray()[0];
      if (oldValue == newValue) eventArgs.FlowBehavior = FlowBehavior.Return;

   public override void OnSuccess(MethodExecutionEventArgs eventArgs) {
      var instance = eventArgs.Instance as IComposed<INotifyPropertyChanged>;
      var imp = instance.GetImplementation(eventArgs.InstanceCredentials) as PropertyChangedImpl;

We almost done, all we have to do is to create class which implements INotifyPropertyChanged with internal method to useful call

internal sealed class PropertyChangedImpl : INotifyPropertyChanged {
   private readonly object _instance;

   public PropertyChangedImpl(object instance) {
      if (instance == null) throw new ArgumentNullException("instance");
      _instance = instance;

   public event PropertyChangedEventHandler PropertyChanged;

   internal void OnPropertyChanged(string propertyName) {
      if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(propertyName)) throw new ArgumentNullException("propertyName");

      var handler = PropertyChanged as PropertyChangedEventHandler;
      if (handler != null) handler(_instance, new PropertyChangedEventArgs(propertyName));

We done. The last thing is to reference to PostSharp Laos and Public assemblies and mark compiler to use Postsharp targets (inside your project file (*.csproj)

<Import Project="$(MSBuildToolsPath)\Microsoft.CSharp.targets" />
<Import Project="PostSharp\PostSharp-1.5.targets" />

Now we done. We can use clear syntax like following to make all our properties has public setter to be traceable. The only disadvantage is that you’ll have to drag two Post Sharp files with your project. But after all it much more convenience than manual notify change tracking all over your project.

public class AutoWiredSource {
   public double MyProperty { get; set; }

Have a nice day and be good people. Also try to thing what other extremely useful things can be done with PostSharp (or any other aspect oriented engine)

Source code for this article (1,225 KB)>>

Visual Studio debugger related attributes cheat sheet

There are some debugger-oriented attributes in .Net, however 70% of developers not even know that they exist and 95% of them has no idea what they doing and how to use it. Today we’ll try to lid light on what those attributes doing and how to achieve the best of using it.

First of all let’s define what we want to get from debugger in VS

Term What it actually does
Step Into Steps into immediate child (that is what F11 does for standard VS layout)
Step Over Skips to any depth (that is what F10 does)
Step Deeper Steps into bypassing code, using certain attribute
Run Through Steps into, but only one level. All lower lavels will be Stepped Over

Now, when we have our set of terms, we can learn what JMC means. It is not famous whisky brand or another car company. It Just My Code option, checked in or out in “Option” dialog inside Visual Studio


Next turn is for attributes, there are four (I know about) attributes, related to debugger and used by me for efficient programming: DebuggerHidden, DebuggerNonUserCode, DebuggerStepThrough and DebuggerStepperBoundary. We will use only three first. DebuggerStepperBoundary is the most secret attribute, which is related to debugging only in multithreaded environment. It used to avoid delusive effect, might appears when a context switch is made on a within DebuggerNonUserCode applied. Other words, when you need to Step Through in Thread A and keep running at the same time in Thread B.

So let’s see the effects occurred when using those debugger attributes in case, you are trying to Step Into place, this attribute applied or set a Breakpoint there. When Just My Code (JMC) is checked all those attributes behaviors the same – they Step Deeper. However, when JMC is turned off (as in my picture) they begin to behavior differently.

Attribute Step Into Breakpoint
DebuggerHidden Step Deeper Step Deeper
DebuggerNonUserCode Step Into Step Into
DebuggerStepThrough Step Deeper Step Into

As you can see, in this case

  • DebuggerNonUserCode respects both for F11 (Step Into) and Breakpoints
  • DebuggerStepThrough respects only for Breakpoints
  • DebuggerHidden does not respects at all – just like when JMC is checked.

Bottom line: if you want people to manage whether to enter or not into your hidden methods – use DebuggerNonUserCode attribute. If you prefer them not to even know that those methods exists, use DebuggerHidden. If you want them to be able to put Breakpoints and stop on them, but keep running without explicit action – use  DebuggerStepThrough

Have a nice day and be good people.  Happy other developers friendly debugging.

Small bonus: To visualize your struct, class, delegate, enum, field, property or even assembly for user debugger, you can use DebuggerDisplay attribute (you need to put executable code into {} for example (“Value = {X}:{Y}”)]

Thanks to Boris for deep investigation

How to calculate CRC in C#?

First of all, I want to beg your pardon about the frequency of posts last time. I’m completely understaffed and have a ton of things to do for my job. This why, today I’ll just write a quick post about checksum calculation in C#. It might be very useful for any of you, working with devices or external systems.

BIOS CRC Error for old thinkpad

CRC – Cyclic Redundancy Check is an algorithm, which is widely used in different communication protocols, packing and packaging algorithms for assure robustness of data. The idea behind it is simple – calculate unique checksum (frame check sequence) for each data frame, based on it’s content and stick it at the end of each meaningful message. Once data received it’s possible to perform the same calculating and compare results – if results are similar, message is ok.

There are two kinds of CRC – 16 and 32 bit. There are also less used checksums for 8 and 64 bits. All this is about appending a string of zeros to the frame equal in number of frames and modulo two device by using generator polynomial containing one or more bits then checksum to be generated. This is very similar to performing a bit-wise XOR operation in the frame, while the reminder is actually our CRC.

In many industries first polynomial is in use to create CRC tables and then apply it for performance purposes. The default polynomial, defined by IEEE 802.3 which is 0xA001 for 16 bit and 0x04C11DB7 for 32 bit. We’re in C#, thus we should use it inversed version which is 0x8408 for 16 bit and 0xEDB88320 for 32 bit. Those polynomials we’re going to use also in our sample.

So let’s start. Because CRC is HashAlgorithm after all, we can derive our classes from System.Security.Cryptography.HashAlgorithm class.

public class CRC16 : HashAlgorithm {
public class CRC32 : HashAlgorithm {

Then, upon first creation we’ll generate hashtables with CRC values to enhance future performance. It’s all about values table for bytes from 0 to 255 , so we should calculate it only once and then we can use it statically.

public CRC16(ushort polynomial) {
HashSizeValue = 16;
_crc16Table = (ushort[])_crc16TablesCache[polynomial];
if (_crc16Table == null) {
_crc16Table = CRC16._buildCRC16Table(polynomial);
_crc16TablesCache.Add(polynomial, _crc16Table);

public CRC32(uint polynomial) {
HashSizeValue = 32;
_crc32Table = (uint[])_crc32TablesCache[polynomial];
if (_crc32Table == null) {
_crc32Table = CRC32._buildCRC32Table(polynomial);
_crc32TablesCache.Add(polynomial, _crc32Table);

Then let’s calculate it

private static ushort[] _buildCRC16Table(ushort polynomial) {
// 256 values representing ASCII character codes.
ushort[] table = new ushort[256];
for (ushort i = 0; i < table.Length; i++) {
ushort value = 0;
ushort temp = i;
for (byte j = 0; j < 8; j++) {
if (((value ^ temp) & 0x0001) != 0) {
value = (ushort)((value >> 1) ^ polynomial);
} else {
value >>= 1;
temp >>= 1;
table[i] = value;
return table;

private static uint[] _buildCRC32Table(uint polynomial) {
uint crc;
uint[] table = new uint[256];

// 256 values representing ASCII character codes.
for (int i = 0; i < 256; i++) {
crc = (uint)i;
for (int j = 8; j > 0; j–) {
if ((crc & 1) == 1)
crc = (crc >> 1) ^ polynomial;
crc >>= 1;
table[i] = crc;

return table;

The result will looks like this for 32 bits

        0x00, 0x31, 0x62, 0x53, 0xC4, 0xF5, 0xA6, 0x97,
        0xB9, 0x88, 0xDB, 0xEA, 0x7D, 0x4C, 0x1F, 0x2E,
        0x43, 0x72, 0x21, 0x10, 0x87, 0xB6, 0xE5, 0xD4,
        0xFA, 0xCB, 0x98, 0xA9, 0x3E, 0x0F, 0x5C, 0x6D,
        0x86, 0xB7, 0xE4, 0xD5, 0x42, 0x73, 0x20, 0x11,
        0x3F, 0x0E, 0x5D, 0x6C, 0xFB, 0xCA, 0x99, 0xA8,
        0xC5, 0xF4, 0xA7, 0x96, 0x01, 0x30, 0x63, 0x52,
        0x7C, 0x4D, 0x1E, 0x2F, 0xB8, 0x89, 0xDA, 0xEB,
        0x3D, 0x0C, 0x5F, 0x6E, 0xF9, 0xC8, 0x9B, 0xAA,
        0x84, 0xB5, 0xE6, 0xD7, 0x40, 0x71, 0x22, 0x13,
        0x7E, 0x4F, 0x1C, 0x2D, 0xBA, 0x8B, 0xD8, 0xE9,
        0xC7, 0xF6, 0xA5, 0x94, 0x03, 0x32, 0x61, 0x50,
        0xBB, 0x8A, 0xD9, 0xE8, 0x7F, 0x4E, 0x1D, 0x2C,
        0x02, 0x33, 0x60, 0x51, 0xC6, 0xF7, 0xA4, 0x95,
        0xF8, 0xC9, 0x9A, 0xAB, 0x3C, 0x0D, 0x5E, 0x6F,
        0x41, 0x70, 0x23, 0x12, 0x85, 0xB4, 0xE7, 0xD6,
        0x7A, 0x4B, 0x18, 0x29, 0xBE, 0x8F, 0xDC, 0xED,
        0xC3, 0xF2, 0xA1, 0x90, 0x07, 0x36, 0x65, 0x54,
        0x39, 0x08, 0x5B, 0x6A, 0xFD, 0xCC, 0x9F, 0xAE,
        0x80, 0xB1, 0xE2, 0xD3, 0x44, 0x75, 0x26, 0x17,
        0xFC, 0xCD, 0x9E, 0xAF, 0x38, 0x09, 0x5A, 0x6B,
        0x45, 0x74, 0x27, 0x16, 0x81, 0xB0, 0xE3, 0xD2,
        0xBF, 0x8E, 0xDD, 0xEC, 0x7B, 0x4A, 0x19, 0x28,
        0x06, 0x37, 0x64, 0x55, 0xC2, 0xF3, 0xA0, 0x91,
        0x47, 0x76, 0x25, 0x14, 0x83, 0xB2, 0xE1, 0xD0,
        0xFE, 0xCF, 0x9C, 0xAD, 0x3A, 0x0B, 0x58, 0x69,
        0x04, 0x35, 0x66, 0x57, 0xC0, 0xF1, 0xA2, 0x93,
        0xBD, 0x8C, 0xDF, 0xEE, 0x79, 0x48, 0x1B, 0x2A,
        0xC1, 0xF0, 0xA3, 0x92, 0x05, 0x34, 0x67, 0x56,
        0x78, 0x49, 0x1A, 0x2B, 0xBC, 0x8D, 0xDE, 0xEF,
        0x82, 0xB3, 0xE0, 0xD1, 0x46, 0x77, 0x24, 0x15,
        0x3B, 0x0A, 0x59, 0x68, 0xFF, 0xCE, 0x9D, 0xAC

Now, all we have to do is to upon request to lookup into this hash table for related value and XOR it

protected override void HashCore(byte[] buffer, int offset, int count) {

for (int i = offset; i < count; i++) {

ulong ptr = (_crc & 0xFF) ^ buffer[i];

_crc >>= 8;

_crc ^= _crc32Table[ptr];



new public byte[] ComputeHash(Stream inputStream) {

byte[] buffer = new byte[4096];

int bytesRead;

while ((bytesRead = inputStream.Read(buffer, 0, 4096)) > 0) {

HashCore(buffer, 0, bytesRead);


return HashFinal();


protected override byte[] HashFinal() {

byte[] finalHash = new byte[4];

ulong finalCRC = _crc ^ _allOnes;

finalHash[0] = (byte)((finalCRC >> 0) & 0xFF);

finalHash[1] = (byte)((finalCRC >> 8) & 0xFF);

finalHash[2] = (byte)((finalCRC >> 16) & 0xFF);

finalHash[3] = (byte)((finalCRC >> 24) & 0xFF);

return finalHash;


We done. Have a good time and be good people. Also, I want to thank Boris for helping me with this article. He promised to write here some day…

Source code for this article

Finally I can reveal stuff I working for last half year!

A couple of days ago WordFocus exposed one of our (frankly old :) ) prototypes for in-car energy assistant system, so today I can exclusively show you some of screens from this state of art WPF work. Real time performance of WPF touch screen application, running on low power automotive grade PC, which boots faster, then Nokia phone. Huge respect for all developers and P-defs.

Map overview

Planning screen Navigation draving state


Full video report by

Quick how to: Reduce number of colors programmatically

My colleague just asked me about how to reduce a number of colors in image programmatically. This is very simple task and contains of 43 :) steps:

Simple color matrix

First of all, you have to read a source image

using (var img = Image.FromFile(name)) {
var bmpEncoder = ImageCodecInfo.GetImageDecoders().FirstOrDefault(e => e.FormatID == ImageFormat.Bmp.Guid);

Then create your own encoder with certain color depth (32 bits in this case)

var myEncoder = System.Drawing.Imaging.Encoder.ColorDepth;
var myEncoderParameter = new EncoderParameter(myEncoder, 32L);
var myEncoderParameters = new EncoderParameters(1) { Param = new EncoderParameter[] { myEncoderParameter } };

Then save it

img.Save(name.Replace(“.png”, “.bmp”), bmpEncoder, myEncoderParameters);

It it enough? Not really, because if you’re going to loose colors (by reducing color depth), it makes sense to avoid letting default WIX decoder to do this, thus you have to find nearest base colors manually. How to do this? By using simple math

Color GetNearestBaseColor(Color exactColor) {
Color nearestColor = Colors.Black;
int cnt = baseColors.Count;
for (int i = 0; i < cnt; i++) {
int rRed = baseColors[i].R – exactColor.R;
int rGreen = baseColors[i].G – exactColor.G;
int rBlue = baseColors[i].B – exactColor.B;

int rDistance =
(rRed * rRed) +
(rGreen * rGreen) +
(rBlue * rBlue);
if (rDistance == 0.0) {
return baseColors[i];
} else if (rDistance < maxDistance) {
maxDistance = rDistance;
nearestColor = baseColors[i];
return nearestColor;

Now, you can either change colors on base image directly

unsafe {
uint* pBuffer = (uint*)hMap;
for (int iy = 0; iy < (int)ColorMapSource.PixelHeight; ++iy)
for (int ix = 0; ix < nWidth; ++ix)
Color nc = GetNearestBaseColor(pBuffer[0].FromOle());

pBuffer[0] &= (uint)((uint)nc.A << 24) | //A
(uint)(nc.R << 16 ) | //R
(uint)(nc.G << 8 ) | //G
(uint)(nc.B ); //B
pBuffer += nOffset;

Or, if you’re in WPF and .NET 3.5 create simple pixel shader effect to do it for you in hardware. Now, my colleague can do it himself in about 5 minutes :) . Have a nice day and be good people.





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